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OurKujitahidi Archive  -- February
1st    1810 - Abolitionist Charles Lenox Remond is born free
                    in Salem, Mass.
         1837 - Francis Cardozo, minister and educator, is born free
                    in Charleston, S.C.
         1865 - John Rock is the first black attorney to practice
                     before the U.S. Supreme Court.
         1865 - Congress adopts the 13th Amendment to the
                    U.S. Constitution, abolishing slavery.
         1870 - Jonathan Jasper Wright is elected to the South Carolina
                    Supreme Court, the first African American to
                    hold a major judicial post.
         1871 - Jefferson F. Long of Georgia is the first black
                    Congressman to speak on the floor of the
                    House of Representatives.  Opposing leniency for
                    former Confederates.
         1894 - James P. Johnson is born in New Brunswick, N.J.
                    He will become known as the father
                    of "Harlem Stride" piano.
         1902 - Langston Hughes, poet, author, historian and activist, 
                    is born in Joplin, Missouri (d.5-22-67).
         1926 - Carter G. Woodson establishes Negro History Week.
                    In 1976, it will be expanded to a month.
         1959 - Rick James, "The King of Punk Funk," is born
                    James Johnson in Buffalo, N.Y.
         1960 - The 1st organized sit-in by African-Americans, Franklin
                    McCaion, Ezell Blair,Jr., David Richmond and Joseph
                    McNeil.  The four from North Carolina A and T College
                    sat down at the lunch counter at the Greensboro, N.C.
                    Woolworth Dept Store.
         1965 - Civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. is arrested
                     by Selma, Ala., segregationist sheriff Jim Clark.
         1978 -  Abolitionist Harriet Tubman is honored on a
                     U.S. stamp, the first in the post office's
                     Black Heritage USA series.
         1990 - The North Carolina A&T students who staged
                     a sit-in in 1960 meet to commemorate their action.
         1990 - Black militant Ida B. Wells is commemorated on
                     a U.S. postage stamp.

2nd   1778 -  Rhode Island passes the nation's first
                     slave military enlistment act, resulting in the
                     First Rhode Island Regiment.
         1808 - Congress bans the foreign slave trade.
         1904 - William "Pa" Rainey is born. He will become the husband
                    of classic blues singer Gertrude "Ma" Rainey.
         1912 - Herbert Mills, a member of the Mills Brothers
                    quartet, is born in Piqua, OH.
         1914 - Sculptor William Ellsworth Artis is born in Washington, DC.
         1915 - Biologist Ernest E. Just receives the Spingarn Medal 
                    for his pioneering research on fertilization and cell
         1938 - Baritone Simon Estes is born in Centerville, IA.
                    He will sing at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich.
         1948 - President Harry S. Truman proposes to Congress
                    civil rights legislation outlawing lynching, eliminating
                    the poll tax, and supporting fair employment.
                    Alienating the white South and impressing
                    African Americans, Truman sets the stage for
                    his unexpected reelection later in the year.
         1970 - Maya Angelou publishes the first volume of her
                    autobiography, I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings.
         1988 - James Weldon Johnson is honored on a U.S. postage stamp. 
         1807 - U.S. Congress bans foreign slave trade.
         1956 - Autherine J. Lucy becomes the 1st African-American
                    student to normally attend the University of Alabama.

3rd   1810 - Antoio Ruiz, "El Negro Falucho", national hero of 
                    Buenos Aires, Argentina, dies.
         1870 - The 15th Amendment to the Constitution is ratified,
                     giving African-American men the right to vote.
         1874 - Blanche K. Bruce is elected to the U.S. Senate from
                    Mississippi, the first African American senator
                    to serve a full term.
         1898 - Lil Hardin Armstrong is born in Memphis, TN.
                    She becomes a classically trained musician and
                    plays piano with the hottest jazz bands of the 1920s.
                    She marries trumpeter Louis Armstrong, recognizes
                    his genius, and helps promote him to national prominence.
         1939 - The Baltimore Museum of Art exhibits
                    "Contemporary Negro Art."
         1948 - Portrait painter and illustrator Laura Wheeling Waring dies.
         1956 - Over violent opposition, Autherine Lucy
                     is the first African American admitted
                     to the University of Alabama.
         1956 - James Brown records "Please, Please, Please"
                    which peaks at No. 5 on the R&B chart and
                     stays on the charts for 19 weeks.
         1964 -  A half million New York City students stay home
                     to protest de facto segregation.
         1981 - The U.S. Air Force Academy eliminates its ban
                    on applicants with the sickle cell trait,
                    a genetic characteristic of some African Americans.
         1988 - Thomas Reed, president of the Alabama NAACP,
                     is arrested trying to remove the Confederate flag
                     from the state capitol building in Montgomery.
         1989 -  Baseball's Bill White, six-time All Star first baseman,
                     is named president of the National League.
         1997 -  Jazz drummer Tony Williams dies in Daly City, CA. 

4th    1794 -  Richard Allen organizes Bethel African Methodist
                     Episcopal Church in Philadelphia.
         1794 -  France abolishes slavery, but it is revived
                     under Napoleon in 1802.
         1822 -  Freed Slaves settle in what is now known as Liberia.
         1913 -  Rosa Parks, "Mother of the Civil Rights Movement,"
                      is born in Tuskegee, AL.
         1964 -  Austin T. Walden becomes the first black judge in
                     Georgia since Reconstruction.
         1965 -  Malcolm X makes his first speech in favor of
                     civil rights in Selma, AL.
         1986 -  The Post Office issues a stamp honoring Sojourner Truth. 

5th    1924 - Jazz Trumpeteer Great Louis Armstrong,
                     marries pianist Lil Hardin.
         1956 - L. R. Lautier becomes the 1st African-American
                     member of the National Press Corps.
         1934 - Henry "Hank" Aaron is born in Mobile, AL.
         1958 - Clifton Wharton becomes the first African America
                     head of a U.S. embassy in Europe when he is confirmed
                     as ambassador to Romania.
         1968 -  Three black students are murdered in Orangeburg, SC
                      for trying to integrate a bowling alley.
         1972 - Robert Lewis Douglas, founder of the Negro League
                    New York Rens, is inducted into the Basketball Hall of Fame.
         1969 - Black artists Romare Bearden, Ernest Crichlow, and \
                    Norman Lewis open the Cinque Gallery in the
                    Soho area of New York to encourage
                    African American painters.
         1990 - Barack Obama becomes the first black president
                    of the "Harvard Law Review."
         1994 - Byron de la Beckwith is found guilty of the 1963 murder of
                    civil rights leader Medgar Evers.
6th    1754 - Benjamin Banneker invents 1st clock with movable 
         1820 - The "Mayflower of Liberia" transports 86 free blacks to
                     Sierra Leone, the first large resettlement of
                     African Americans to Africa.
         1883 -  Harlem Renaissance Poet Anne Spencer is born in Virginia.
         1898 -  Poet Laureate of Liberia Melvin B. Tolson
                     is born in Moberly, MO.
         1931 -  The Harlem Experimental Theater Group performs
                     its first play in the parish house of St. Philip's Church.
         1933 - Walter F. Fauntroy, 1st U.S. Congressman for the District
                     of Columbia, civil rights leader, and minister, is born in
                     Washington, D.C.
         1945 -  Reggae singer Bob Marley is born in Rhoden Hall, Jamaica.
         1950 -  Singer Natalie Cole, daughter of Nat "King" Cole,
                     is born in Los Angeles.
         1961 -  Civil rights activists in Rock Hill, SC begin a
                     "jail - no bail" movement,
                     refusing to pay fines when they are arrested.
                     The strategy spreads throughout the South, and prisons
                     are soon crowded with Freedom Movement protesters.
         1988 -  Rap group Public Enemy makes its chart debut
                      with "Bring the Noise."
         1993 - Arthur Ashe, tennis player, activist and humanitarian, 
7th    1834 - Patrick Healy is born in rural Georgia, the
                     son of a white planter
                     and one of his slaves. Healy will be the
                     first African American
                     to receive a Ph.D., and become, as president
                     of Georgetown University,
                     the first black college president.
         1842 - James Monroe Trotter is born a slave in Grand Gulf, MS.
                     He will become editor of the militant "Boston Guardian."
         1866 - Black civil rights leader Frederick Douglass meets
                    with President Andrew Johnson urging him not to
                    enfranchise former Confederates. Johnson refuses.
         1883 - 1883 - Eubie Blake, musician and innovative composer who is
                     credited with creating "ragtime music" is born(d.1983
         1926 - Negro History Week is originated by Carter G.
         1968 -  Martin Luther King, Jr. announces the
                     Poor People's Campaign, a sequel to the Civil Rights
                     Movement focusing on economic inequality.
         1989 -  The American Council on Education reports a decrease
                      in the number of black men attending college.
         1993 -  Tennis star Arthur Ashe dies of complications
                      from AIDS in New York.
8th    1820 - Harriet Tubman, founder and leader of the
                     underground railroad, is born.
         1865 - Martin R. Delany is commissioned a Major,
                     becoming the highest-ranking African American
                     in the U. S. Army.
         1882 - Joseph C. Price founds Livingstone College in North Carolina.
         1894 - Congress repeals the Enforcement Act,
                     making it easier for the South to disfranchise freed people.
         1925 - Black nationalist Marcus Garvey is sent to federal prison
                     in Atlanta, convicted of mail fraud, but convinced,
                     probably correctly, that he had been framed by
                     integrationist African Americans in collusion
                     with the U.S. government.
          1944 - Henry S. McAlpin of the "Atlanta Daily World"
                     is the first black reporter admitted to a
                     White House press conference.
          1964 - The 1st Medgar Evers murder trial is declared a
          1968 - Gary Coleman is born in Zion, OH. He will become
                     famous for his role in the "Diff'rent Strokes"
                     TV series which ran from 1978-1986.
          1968 - 3 protesting students are shot and killed at Jackson
                     State College, Orangeburg, South Carolina.
                     The dead are Samuel Hammond, Delano Middleton,
                     and Henry Ezekiel Smith.
          1986 - Debi Thomas is the first African American to win the
                     women's singles U.S. National Figure Skating championship.
          1993 - The Associated Press reports that black farmers
                     receive an average of $21,000 less than white borrowers
                     from the Farmers' Home Administration loan program.
9th    1780 - Captain Paul Caffe and six other African-American
                     residents of Massachusetts petitioned the state 
                     legislature for the right to vote.
         1837 - Represented by John Quincy Adams, 22 District of
                    Columbia slaves petition Congress for freedom.
                    The petition is tabled and Adams reprimanded.
         1906 - Poet Paul Laurence Dunbar dies in Dayton, OH.
         1944 - Writer Alice Walker is born in Eatonton, GA.
         1952 - Ralph Ellison's novel Invisible Man
                    wins the National Book Award.
         1953 - Gary Franks is born in Waterbury, CT.
                    In 1990 he will be elected to Congress as the first
                    black Republican representative since
                    Oscar DePriest left the House in 1934.
         1964 - Tennis star Arthur Ashe becomes the first
                    African American on the U.S. Davis Cup Team.
         1965 - Martin Luther King, Jr. meets President
                    Lyndon B. Johnson to discuss voting rights.
         1971 - Leroy Satchel Paige of the Negro Leagues
                     is elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame.
         1995 - Bernard Harris is the first black astronaut to walk in space. 
10th  1780 - Massachusetts' Paul Cuffe files a petition protesting
                     his taxation because he is not allowed to vote.
         1832 - Florida allows the selling into slavery of free
                     blacks convicted of misdemeanors.
         1909 - Jazz drummer and bandleader William Henry "Chick"
                    Webb is born in Baltimore.
         1927 - Opera singer Leontyne Price is born in Laurel, MS.
                    She will be the first African American awarded the
                    Presidential Medal of Freedom.
         1939 - Popular singer Roberta Flack is born in Asheville, NC.
         1951 - H. Lewis becomes the 1st African-American to
                     conduct the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra.
         1957 - The Southern Christian Leadership Conference is
         1988 - Louis Sullivan is named Secretary of Health and
                    Human Services, the only black in
                    President George W. Bush's cabinet.
         1989 - Ronald H. Brown is elected chair of the
                    Democratic National Committee.
         1992 - Alex Haley, author of two major books,
                    The Autobiography of Malcolm X and Roots,
                    dies in Seattle, WA.
         1992 - Michael Jackson, in his first interview in 14 years,
                    announces that his new white skin is due to a disorder
                    called vitiligo.
11th 1908 -  Folk singer Josh White is born in Greenville, SC.
        1920 -  Daniel "Chappie" James is born in Pensacola, FL.
                    He will become the military's first black 4-star general,
                    serving the US Air Force.
        1961 -  Robert Weaver is sworn in as administrator of the
                    Housing and Home Finance Administration,
                    the highest-ranking African American in the
                    federal government to date.
        1977 - Clifford Alexander, Jr. is named the first black
                    Secretary of the Army.
        1989 -  Barbara Clementine Harris, an African American,
                    is consecrated the first female bishop in the Episcopal Church.
                    Harris is the first woman to be appointed to such a post
                    in one of the churches governed by bishops believed to
                    be successors to Jesus' apostles
                    (Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Anglican).
         1990 - South Africa's anti-apartheid leader Nelson Mandela
                     is released from prison after 27 years.
12th  1793 - Congress passes the first Fugitive Slave law,
                     making it illegal to protect an escaped slave.
         1809 - Abraham Lincoln, President, emancipator, is born in
         1865 -  Henry Highland Garnett is the first
                     African American
                     to preach in the rotunda of the U.S.
                     House of Representatives.
                    The occasion is President Abraham Lincoln's birthday.
         1896 - Isaac Murphy, perhaps the greatest African
                    American jockey, dies.
         1900 - James Weldon Johnson and his brother J.
                    Rosamond Johnson compose "Lift Ev'ry Voice and Sing"
                    aka The Negro National Anthem.
         1903 - William Duncan Allen, pianist, educator, is born.
         1909 - The NAACP is chartered by nine members of the 
                     Niagara Movement.
         1919 - Eddie Robinson, the holder of the record for the most
                     wins as a coach in college football history, is born.
         1926 - Historian Carter G. Woodson establishes
                    Negro History Week,
                    which will become African American History Month.
         1934 - William "Bill" Russell is born in Monroe, LA.
                    He will become player-coach of the Boston Celtics.
         1957 - Talk show host Arsenio Hall is born in Cleveland, OH.
         1968 - Eldridge Cleaver publishes Soul On Ice.
         1983 - Pianist James Hubert "Eubie" Blake dies in New York
                    at the age of 100.
         1993 - The Associated Press reports that the number
                    of interracial couples has doubled in the past 12 years.
13th  1635 - The Boston Latin School, the country's first high school,
                     is founded in Boston, a year before Harvard University.
                     African American students are excluded.
         1818 - Absolom Jones, the 1st African-American Episcopal 
                     priest to be ordained in the United States, dies(b1746).
         1866 -  President Andrew Johnson vetoes a bill providing for
                     an extension of the Freedman's Bureau,
                     but Congress overrides his veto.
         1892 -  The World's Fair Colored Opera Company performs
                     at Carnegie Hall.
         1920 -  Baseball's National Negro League is founded in Kansas City.
         1923 -  The first professional black basketball team,
                     The Renaissance (named for the Harlem Renaissance),
                      is organized. They will be popularly known as The Rens.
         1947 -  Atlanta hires its first African American police officers.
         1957 - In New Orleans, Louisiana, The Southern Christian
                    Leadership Conference is organized with the Rev. Dr.
                    Martin Luther King at its head.
         1970 -  Joseph H. Searles III becomes the first black member
                     of the New York Stock Exchange.
         1979 -  The U.S. Civil Rights Commission reports that 46%
                     of minority students are still attending racially
                     segregated schools.
                     This is 25 years after the Supreme Court's Brown v.
                     Board of Education decision mandating integration.
14th  1760 - Richard Allen, who will become the first bishop
                     of the African Methodist Episcopal Church,
                     is born a slave in Philadelphia.
         1817 -  Frederick Douglass chooses this day
                     and this year as his birthday.
                     Birth dates of slaves are not recorded,
                     but Douglass recalls his mother calling him "my valentine."
         1880 -  Aida Overton Walker is born in New York.
                     She will become the leading Cakewalk dancer
                     of the turn of the century, and the choreographer
                     of Williams and Walker's revolutionary series of
                     ragtime musicals on Broadway.
         1893 -  Songwriter Perry Bradford is born in Montgomery, AL.
         1920 -  Mamie Smith makes the first record by a black blues singer,
                     "Crazy Blues," on the Okeh label. It is an immediate hit with
                     sales of 1,000,000 records, mostly in black communities.
         1943 - Pearl Primus choreographs "African Ceremonial"
                    at New York's 92nd Street Y.
         1946 - Tap dancer Gregory Hines is born in New York.
         1951 - "Sugar" Ray Robinson, the Fighter boxing aficianados
                     call, "pound for pound the best ever" won his 1st 
                     middleweight title on this date by pounding "the 
                     Raging Bull", Jake Lamotta for thirteen rounds
         1967 -  Frederick Douglass is honored on a U.S. postage stamp.
         1974 -  The first Double Dutch jump rope tournament is held
                      in New York. 
         1817 - Orator and Abolitionist, Frederick Douglass, is born in
                     Tuckahoe, Maryland.
15th  1848 - Benjamin Roberts files a school integration
                    suit against the city of Boston on behalf of his daughter
                     Sarah. The case, which Roberts ultimately lost, yields
                     the phrase "separate but equal," quoted again in the
                     1897 Plessy v. Ferguson decision. State-sponsored school
                     discrimination is not judged illegal until    
                     1954's Brown v. Board of Education ruling.
          1897 - Alabama funds a Branch Agricultural Experiment Station
                     and Agricultural School for the Colored Race to be
                     established at Tuskegee Institute for
                     George Washington Carver.
          1901 - Blues guitarist James "Kokomo" Arnold is born
                      in Lovejoy, GA.
          1923 - Bessie Smith makes her first recording:
                     "Down Hearted Blues" and "Gulf Coast Blues"
                     for Columbia. The record sells 800,000
                     copies and establishes Smith as the leading
                     singer of urban blues.
          1941 - Duke Ellington records his classic "Take the A Train."
          1964 - Louis Armstrong's vocal "Hello Dolly" reaches Number 1
                     on Billboard's Top 40, pushing out the Beatles.
          1965 - Singer Nat "King" Cole dies in Santa Monica, CA.
          1965 - Malcolm X accuses the Nation of Islam of bombing his house.
          1967 - Henry Lewis is named Director of the New Jersey Symphony,
                     the first African American to conduct a symphony orchestra.
          1978 - Leon Spinks wins the world heavyweight boxing
                     championship from Muhammad Ali.
          1991 - Paul Russell, ballet dancer with the Dance
                     Theater of Harlem, dies in San Francisco. 


16th    1874 - Frederick Douglass is appointed the head of the
                      Freedman's Bureau.
           1923 - Bessie Smith makes her 1st recording(for Columbia
                      Records), 'Down Hearted Blues'.
           1951 - The New York City Council prohibits racial
                       discrimination in city housing.
           1957 -  Actor Levar "Kunta Kinte" Burton is born in
                       Landsthul, Germany.
           1970 -  Joe Frazier knocks out Jimmy Ellis and becomes the
                       world heavyweight boxing champion.
           1971 -  Wilt Chamberlain, center for the Los Angeles Lakers,
                       scores his 30,000th basketball point playing the
                       Phoenix Suns. He is the first National Basketball Association
                       player to attain that total score.
17th    1865 - The klu klux klan is organized in Pulaski, Tenn.
           1902 - Internationally reknowned Contralto, Marion Anderson,
                      is born(d.1993).
           1919 - Soldiers of the all-black 369th Infantry in World War I
                      march in a victory parade up New York's Fifth Avenue.
                      They are led by James Reese Europe's "Hellfighters" band.
           1936 - Jim Brown, Football Hall of Famer,
                      is born on St. Simon's Island, Georgia.
           1937 - Mary Frances Berry is born in Nashville.
                      She will be a distinguished historian and civil rights activist.
           1942 - Huey P. Newton, co-founder of the Black Panther Party is
                      born in Monroe, LA.
           1943 - Bibliographer and rare book dealer
                      William P. French is born in Great Barrington, MA.
           1963 - Michael Jordan, is born in Brooklyn, New York.
           1973 - The U.S. Navy frigate "Jesse L. Brown" is commissioned.
                      It is named for the first naval aviator killed in the Korean War,
                      an African American. But the ship is sold to another country,
                      and Brown's heroism unacknowledged.
           1980 - The U.S. Justice Department charges J. Edgar Hoover,
                      Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI),
                      with blocking prosecution of four Ku Klux Klan (KKK)
                      members identified as responsible for the 1963 bombing
                      of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, AL.
                      Four young black girls were killed.
           1981 - Jazz pianist Thelonius Monk dies in Weehawken, NJ. 

18th    1688 - The 1st formal protest against slavery in the Western
                       world was signed by four Mennonite/Quaker men in 
                       Germantown, Pennsylvania.
           1767 - The Mason-Dixon Line is named for two English
                       surveyors, Charles Mason and Geremiah Dixon.
           1867 - Augusta Institute is founded in Augusta, GA.
                      In 1913 it will move to Atlanta and become Morehouse College.
           1894 - Architect Paul Revere Williams is born in Los Angeles. 
           1913 - Delta Sigma Theta sorority is founded at Howard University.
           1931 - 1st African-American Nobel Prize in Literature recipient for
                      Now I know why the Caged Bird Sings,
                      Toni Morrison is born in Loraine, OH. 
           1949 - William L. Dawson, a Congressperson from Chicago,
                      is the first black to head a Congressional standing committee,
                      the House Expenditures Committee.
           1965 -The African country of Gambia gains its
           1973 - Harlem Renaissance artist Palmer Hayden dies in New York.
           1995 - Myrlie Evers-Williams is elected chair of the NAACP. 

19th    1790 - George Bridgewater, 1st African-American Concert
                      Violinist, debuts in London, England.
           1919 - The first Pan-African Congress opens in Paris under
                       the leadership of African American public intellectual
                       W.E.B. Du Bois. Du Bois links the freedom of African
                       Americans at home with opposition to colonialism in Africa.
           1940 -  William "Smokey" Robinson is born in Detroit.
           1982 -  Clarence Thomas is nominated by President Ronald Reagan
                       to head the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission,
                       the purpose of which they both oppose.
           1992 -  John Singleton is the first African American nominated
                       for an Academy Award as best director for his
                       film Boyz N the Hood.
           1996 -  Concert singer Dorothy Maynor dies in New York. 
           1853 - The 1st African-American YMCA was started in
                        Washington, D.C.
20th    1865 - Journalist,abolitionist, Frederick Douglass, dies at the
                       age of 78, in Washington, D.C.
           1900 - J.F. Pickering is granted a patent for an airship.
           1906 - African-American Fraternity, Alpha Phi Alpha, is
                      established at Cornell University.
           1911 - Writer Francis Ellen Watkins Harper dies in Philadelphia.
           1924 -  Academy Award winning actor(Lillies of the Field),
                       Sidney Poitier, is born in Miami, FL.
           1936 -  John Hope dies in Atlanta. He was the first black
                       president of Morehouse College, and the
                       first president of Atlanta University.
           1937 - Jazz and pop star Nancy Wilson is born in Ohio.
           1951 - Pianist and composer(The Life and Times of Malcolm X),
                      Anthony Davis is born in Paterson, NJ.
           1982 - Two hundred African American special
                      agents of the Federal Drug Enforcement Agency win
                      $2,000,000 in a racial discrimination suit.
           1987 - Jean Baptiste du Sable, the black founder of Chicago,
                      is honored on a U.S. postage stamp.
21st    1965 - El Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Malcolm X) is assassinated
                      while giving a speech on the Organization of African
                     Unity at the Audibon Ballroom in Harlem, New York.
22nd    1911- Frances Ellen Watkins Harper, 'The Bronze Muse',
                     who wrote more than a dozen books of prose and 
                     poetry and was considered the most famous African-
                     American poet of the 19th Century, dies.
23rd   1868 - Academician, African-American Rights activist, 
                     author and historian, W.E.B. Dubois is born in Great Barrington, 
                     Massachusetts(d.1963 in Ghana, Africa).
24th   1811 - Daniel A. Payne, clergyman, historian, and the 1st
                     African-American college president, is born.
         1966 - Military leaders oust Kwame Nkrumah, president of 
                    Ghana, while he is in Peking on a peace mission to
                    stop the Vietnam War.
25th   1870 - Hiram Revels becomes the 1st African-American
                    elected to the United States Senate.
         1978 - Daniel "Chappie" James, the 1st African-American
                    four star General, dies in Colorado Springs, Colorado.
26th  1869 - The 15th amendment is proposed in Congress, giving 
                    former slaves the right to vote.
27th  1833 - Maria W. Stewart delivered one of four speeches 
                    which confirmed her place in history as the first
                    American-born woman to give public lectures.
        1900 - Teacher and Poet, Angelina Weld Grimke, is born in 
                    Boston, Massachusetts.
        1902 - World-renowned opera singer and civil rights
                   advocate, Marian Anderson, is born in Philadelphia,
28th  1748 - Poet laureate, Phillis Wheatley, dies in poverty in 
                    Boston, Massachusetts.    

"Please, Please, Please"
Malcolm X
Bob Marley
Marcus Garvey