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Our Kuchitahidi Archive --  August
1st    1834 - Slavery declared unlawful in the British Empire.  
        1867 - Robert T. Freeman, becomes the 1st African-  
                   American to graduate from Harvard Dental School.  
        1874 - Charles T. Spaulding, one the the founders of the   
                     North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company, is  
                    born.  
        1895 - Benjiman Mays is born(d.1984)  
        1960 - Benin, formerly Dahomey, gains its independence.  
        1964 - Arthur Ashe, becomes the 1st African-American to   
                    play on the U.S. Davis Cup tennis team.  
        1979 - Hazel Johnson, beGeneral.  
 
2nd   1847 - William A. Leidesdorff launches the 1st steamboat,  
                   in San Francisco Bay.  
        1927 - James Baldwin, writer, novelist and Civil Rights   
                    activist, is born(d.1987)  
        1932 - Phillipa Shuyler, composer and pianist, is born.  
 
3rd    1787 - Prince Hall Lodge is organized as the 1st
                    African-American Lodge.  
        1908 - Allen Allensworth files the site plan for the African-  
                   American town of Allensworth, California.  
        1917 - Eddie Jefferson, the recognised "father of Jazz   
                    vocalese", is born(d.1979).  
 
4th    1838 - The Island of the Bahamas gains its independence.  
        1875 - The 1st Convention of Colored Newspaperman is   
                    held in Cinncinatti, Ohio.
        1901 -  Louis Daniel Armstrong  July 6, 1971),
                    nicknamed Satchmo or Pops, was
                    American jazz trumpeter and singer
                    from New Orleans, Louisiana. d. July 6, 1971
        1936 - "Long John" Woodruff of the University of
                   Pittsburgh wins an Olympic Gold Medal in the 800
                   meter run.  
        1979 - Willie Mays, baseball great, who played with the
                   N.Y. baseball Giants and the San Francisco Giants,
                   was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.  
 
5th    1892 - Harriet Tubman, receives a pension fron the   
                    Congress of the United States, for her work as  
                   a nurse, spy and scout during the Civil War.  
        1962 - South African rights activist, Nelson Mandela is   
                    imprisoned in South Africa.  
        1964 - Civil Rights workers, Andrew Goodman, Michael  
                   Schwerner and J.B. Chaney, were found dead in   
                    dam near philadelphia, Mississippi.  
        1986 - Kamaria Wilson, is born.  
    
6th    1957 - Reverand Archibald J. Carey appointed chairman  
                   of the President's(eisenhaur)Government   
                    Employment Committee.                 
         1962 - The Carribean island of Jamaica gains its   
                    independence.  
        1965 - President Lyndon Baynes Johnson signs the
                   Voting Rights Act, outlawing the literacy test for
                   voting eligibility in the South.  
        1967 -  Sir Alexander Bustamante, Jamaica's 1st Prime   
                    Minister, dies.  
 
7th    1846 - Escaped slave and abolitionist, Frederick
                   Douglass  was speaker at the World's 
                    Temperance Convention  
                   in London, England.  
        1904 - Dr. Ralph Bunche, the 1st African American
                   Nobel Prize winner, is born in Detroit, Michigan.  
        1936 - Jazz woodwind instument innovator,
                   Rashaan Roland Kirk, is born(d.1977)  
        1932 - Abebe Bikila, winner of the 1960 Olympic
                   marathon,  (running barefoot) is born.  
 
8th    1865 - Matthew Henson, explorer and writer is born.  He   
                    was the 1st to reach the North Pole.  
        1963 - The ZimbabweAfricanNationalUnion(ZANU)is   
                    founded.  
 
9th    1936 - Track star Jesse Owens wins 4 gold medals at the    
                   Olympics in Berlin, Germany, putting to rest forever   
                    Aryan Racial Superiority theory of the Nazi   
                    government, led by Adolph Hitler.  
        1899 - Noble Sissle, African American composer and         
                    librettist, is born(d.1975).  
        1956 - South African Women's Day-The Anniversity of   
                    The Women's March on Pretoria.  
        1979 - Patricia Roberts Harris was installed as President   
                    Jimmy Carter's Secretay of Health and Human   
                    Services.  
 
10th  1873 - J. Rosamund Johnson, composer and arranger of  
                   "Lift Every Voice And Sing", is born(d.1954).  
        1909 - George W. Crockett, Jr., the 1st African-American   
                    lawyer with the U.S. Department of Laboris born in  
                   Jacksonville, Florida.  
        1964 - African-American students register at previously all  
                   white elementary schools in Biloxi, Mississippi.  
        1984 - Carl Lewis wins 4 gold medals at the Olympics,   
                    duplicating Jesse Owens' feat at the 1936
                   Olympics.  
 
11th  1921 - Alex Haley, author of "Roots", is born in Ithica, N.Y.  
                   (d.1992).  
        1924 - Carl T. Rowan, writer, author, radio and newspaper  
                   columnist, is born(d.1999).  
        1962 - Police close the municipal parks and library in   
                    Albany, Georgia, after segregated groups try to use   
                    the facilities.  
 
12th  1922 - Frederick Douglass's house in Washington, D.C. is  
                  dedicated a memorial to Race Struggle.  
        1977 - Black conciousnous movement activist, Steven Biko   
                    arrested in Soweto, South Africa.  
13th  1881 - The 1st African-American nursing school is founded   
                    at Spelman College, in Atlanta georgia.  
        1892 - The Baltimore based, Afro-American newspaper is   
                    founded  
        1911 - James B. Parsons, the 1st African-American Federal   
                   Judge, is born.  
        1927 - Bernice Elizabeth Wilson, is born, in Stubenville,  
                  Ohio(d.2000).  
        1927 - Actress Claudia McNeil, is born(d.1998)  
 
14th  1883 - Ernest E. Just, biologist(pioneer of cell division)and   
                   1st winner of the NAACP Spingard Medal, is born.  
        1938 - Niara Sudarkasa, educator and 1st female president  
                  of Lincoln University, is born in Ft, Lauderdale, FL.  
        1959 - Basketball legend, Ervin "Magic" Johnson, is born.  
 
15th  1875 - Samuel Coleridge Taylor, composer, is born.  
        1914 - Panama Canal is opened: opening the world to the   
                    peoples of the Southern hemisphere.  
        1938 - Maxine Waters. the 2nd African-American woman to   
                    be elected to Congress from California, is born.  

16th  1930 - Innovative blues guitarist, Robert Johnson, dies in   
                   Greenwood, Mississippi.  
        1979 - Betty Jackson King, composer, educator, pianist and   
                    Choral conductor, becomes president of the   
                    National Association of African-American Musicians.  
                   
17th  1887 - Marcus Garvey, Black Naitonalist, is born.  
        1897 - W.B. Purvis patented the electric railway switch.  
        1938 - Henry Armstrong wins the World Lightweight   
                   Championship, from Lou Ambers.  
 
18th  1963 - James Meredith becomes the 1st African-American
                  to graduate from the University of Mississippi.  
             
19th  1791 - Benjiman Banneker publishes, Almanac.  
        1950 - Edith Sampson becomes the 1st African-American  
                   representative to the United Nations.  
        1954 - Dr. Ralph J. Bunche named undersecretary of the  
                   United Nations.  
        1954 - Dr. Frank M. Snowden was appointed Cultural   
                    Attacher in Embassy in Rome.  
        1963 - NAACP Youth Council begins sit-ins at lunch   
                    counters in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma.  
 
20th  1619 - Slaves brought by the Dutch to the Colony of   
                    Jamestown.  
        1830 - First National Negro Convention held in
                   Philadelphia, with Richard Allen as Chair.  
        1831 - Nat Turner's Rebellion  
        1942 - R&B vocalist,composer, multi grammy winner and   
                    recipient of the Academy award(Shaft 1970 ), is
                   born.  
 
21st  1831 - Nat Turner, is captured.  
        1904 - William "Count" Basie, Bandleader and composer, is   
                    born in Red Bank, New Jersey.  
        1971 - George Jackson, is killed in San Quentin Prison.  
 
22nd 1791 - Haitian Revolution begins.  
        1917 - John Lee Hooker, blues composer and guitarist,   
                    is born.  
        1962 - Mel Goode becomes the 1st African-American TV   
                   news commentator on a major TV network (ABC-
                  TV). He first airs on August 29, 1962.  
        1978 - Kenyan President and revolutionary, Jomo Kenyatta  
                   (Burning Spear), dies.  
             
23rd  1755 - Jean Baptiste Lislet-Geoffroy, French geographer, is   
                    born.  
        1796 - The AME church is incorporated in Philadelphia, PA.  
        1900 - Booker T. Washington forms the National Negro   
                    Business League, in Boston, Massachusetts.  
        1957 - American Federation of Teachers(AFT) segregated   
                    locals are expelled.
        1989 - In a case that inflamed racial tensions in New York City,
                   Yusuf Hawkins, a 16-year-old black youth, was shot dead
                   after he and his friends were confronted by white youths
                   in the Bensonhurst section of Brooklyn.

24th 1948 - Edith Mae Irby becomes the University of Arkansas's  
                   1st African-American student.  
 
25th   1908 - The National Association of Colored Nurses is   
                    founded.  
         1925 - A. Phillip Randolph founded the Sleeping Car   
                    Porters Union.  
         1927 - Althea Gibson, 1st African-American to play tennis
                   at the U.S. Open and Wimbleton, is born in Silver, 
                    S.C.  
 
26th   1900 - Noted painter, Hale Aspacio Wooddruff, is born in  
                   Cairo, Illionois.  
         1903 - Jimmy Rushing, Count Basie Band vocalist, is born.  
         1943 - Black Democratic Party nominates William L.   
                     Dawson for vice president.  
         1966 - SWAPO begins armed struggle in Namibia.  
         1975 - General Daniel "Chappie" James, Jr. is promoted  
                    to the rank of Four Star General, the 1st such   
                     promotion in the history of the nation.  
27th  1909 - Tenor sax player, Lester"the president"Young, is  
                    born(d.1959).  
         1963 - W.E.B. Dubois, scholar, civil rights activist and   
                     founder of the NAACP, dies in Accra, Ghana.  
         1989 - Chuck Berry performs his tune"Johnny B. Goode"  
                    for NASA staff in celebration of Voyager 2's  
                    encounter  with the planet Neptune.  
 
28th   1565 - Spanish fort and settlement at St. Augustine, 
                     Florida.  
         1955 - Civil rights activist, Emmet Till's body is found.  
         1963 - The largest single demonstration in the history of
                    the United States, The March on Washington.  Dr.
                    Martin Luther King gave the "I Have A Dream" 
                     speech.  
             
29th   1920 - Jazz saxaphone innovator, Charles"Yardbird"Parker  
                    is born in Kansas City, Kansas.  
         1924 - Blues and Jazz singer, Dinah Washington, is born  
                    (d.1963).  
         1957 - The 1st Civil Rights Act since 1875 is passed.  The   
                     Constitutionality of this Act was affirmed by the   
                     U.S. Supreme Court in 1960.  
30th   1830 - Gabriel Prosser's Rebellion.  
         1856 - Wilberforce Univesity is founded by the M.E.
                    church.  
         1901 - Roy Wilkins, civil rights activist, is born(d.1981)  
         1948 - Fred Hampton, civil rights activist is born(killed by  
                    police in 1969)  
         1983 - Lt. Col.Guion S. Bluford, becomes the 1st African-  
                    American in Space.  
 
31st   1936 - Innovative educator Marva Collins, is born, in   
                    Monroeville, Alabama.  
         1962 - Trinidad and Tobago gain independence.

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