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Our Kuchitahidi Archive  -- July
1st    1899 -- The recognized founder of Gospel Music, Reverend   
                      Thomas Dorsey, is born in Villa Rica, Georgia.  
         1915 -- Blues composer, bassist and vocalist, Willie Dixon is   
                      born.  
         1925 -- Blues vocalist, James Cotton, is born.  
         1966 -- The Congress Of Equal Rights(C.O.R.E.) votes to   
                      adopt the concept and goals of "Black Power", at its  
                      National Convention.  
 
2nd   1775 -- Prince Hall Lodge is established.  
         1777 -- Vermont becomes the 1st territory to abolish slavery  
         1839 -- The Amistad "mutineers" were tried.  
         1848 -- The Islands of the British West Indies were   
                      emancipated.  
         1908 -- Thurgood Marshall, The first African-American   
                      U.S. Supreme Court Associate Justice, is born.  
         1925 -- Patrice Lumumba, assassinated president of the   
                      Belgium Congo, is born.  
         1964 -- The Civil Rights Act was signed and passed into law.  
 
3rd    1893 -- "Mississippi" John Hurt, blues composer, vocalist and   
                     guitarist, is born.  
         1962 -- Jackie Robinson becomes the 1st African-American to   
                      be inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in   
                      Canton, Ohio.  
  
4th   1881 -- Tuskegee Institute opens in Tuskegee, Alabama with  
                     Booker T. Washington as its 1st President.  
        1900 -- Louis "Satchmo" Armstrong, Jazz trumpeteer great, is  
                     born.  
        1934 -- Bill Withers, R&B composer, vocalist and guitarist is
                     born.  
             
5th   1809 -- The Abyssinian Baptist Church, in New York City's  
                     Harlem, is founded and organized, with 19 members.  
        1892 --  Andrew Beard, is granted and issued a patent for the   
                     rotary engine.  
        1962 -- Algeria gained its independence.  
        1975 -- Tennis great, Arthur Ashe, wins Wimbleton.  
 
6th   1854 --The Republican Party is founded on an anti-slavery  
                    platform.  
        1906 -- Leroy Satchel Paige, is born.  
        1971 -- Jazz trumpet player and entertainment legend,   
                     Louis Armstrong, dies at his home in Queens, N.Y.  
 
7th   1791 -- The non-denominational African Church, is founded  
                     by Richard Allen, Absolom Jones and Benjiman Rush.  
        1869 -- Ida B. Welles,is born.  
        1893 -- Walter White, NAACP leader, is born.  
        1913 -- Blues pianist, composer and vocalist, Lee Willie   
                     "Pinetop" Perkins, is born (d.1982).  
        1930 -- Hank Mobley, jazz great, is born(d1982)  
        1957 -- Althea Gibson, becomes the 1st African-American  
                     woman to win at Wimbleton.  
 
8th   1908 -- Louis Jordan, Jazz composer, bandleader, Saxaphone  
                     player and vocalist, is born(d.1975).  
        1914 -- Billy Eckstine, Jazz vocal stylist, is born(d.1993)  
        1943 -- Women's rights advocate, Fay Wattleton, is born in St.  
                    Louis, Missouri.  
        1955 -- E. Frederick Morrow is appointed Administrative   
                     Officer in the Eisenhauer executive office.  
 
9th   1893 -- Daniel Hale Williams performs the 1st successful open  
                     heart surgery, without anesthesia, in Chicago, IL.  
        1936 -- Poet and author, June Jordan, is born, in Harlem, N.Y.  
        1961 -- George L. F. Weaver, is appointed Secretary of Labor  
                     in charge of International Affairs.  
 
10th 1875 -- Mary McLeod Bethune, educator, is born.  
        1902 -- Nicolas Guillen(Cuban National Poet), is born(d.1989)  
        1905 -- Evie Anderson, vocalist with The Duke Elington Band,   
                     is born.  
        1939 -- Lee Morgan, trumpeter, is born.  
        1948 -- The American Federation of Teachers(AFT), refuses   
                     charter to segregated locals.  
 
11th 1905 -- W.E.B. Dubois founded the Niagara Movement(pre-  
                     -cursor to the NAACP).  
        1915 -- The 1st African-American to be elected a municipal  
                     judge, Albert B. George of Chicago, dies.  
        1961 -- Hudgins and Associates, becomes the 1st minority  
                     Small business Investment Company to be licensed  
                     under a new law passed in 1958.  
 
12th 1968 -- American Indian Movement(AIM), is founded  
        1864 -- George Washington Carver, is born.  
        1920 -- Paul Gonsalves(of New Bedford,MA.), Duke  
                    Elington Band, 1st seat Sax player, is born(d.1975).                
        1937 -- William 'Bill' Cosby, ED.D, comedian, actor, educator   
                     and humanitarian, is born in Philadelphia, PA.    
        1960 -- The Deomcratic National Convention adopts a Civil   
                     Rights Plank, supportin sitins and de-segragation.  
        1960 -- The Newark, N.J. riots begins. 
 
13th 1787 -- Congress outlaws slavery in the Northwest Territory.  
        1863 -- New York City Draft Riots begins, lasts 3 days; 1000  
                     killed.  
        1923 -- Robert N.C. Nix, Jr. 1st African-American Chief   
                     Justice of a state supreme court (Pennsylvania), is born.  
        1934 -- Author, Wole Solyinka, is born.   
 
14th 1951 -- The George Washington Carver Monument is   
                     dedicated in Joplin, Missouri.  It is the 1st National  
                     Park  honoring an African-American.  
 
15th 1822 --1st public school for African-Americans founded in   
                    Philadelphia, PA.  
        1929 --Francis Bebey, guitarist ands author, is born.  
        1967 --(J.12-15)Newark Riots leaves 15 killed, 1500 injured  
                    and 1390 arrested; with property damage totaling   
                    between 15 and 30 million dollars.  
 

16th    1822 --Violette A. Johnson, the 1st African-American woman  
                       to practice before the U.S. Supreme Court.  
           1866 -- Freedman's bureau continued over President   
                        Johnson's veto.  
           1948 -- Ruben Blades, Hispanic actor and musician, is born.  
 
17th    1867 -- Madame C.J. Walker(Sarah Breedlove), 1st African  
                       American woman millionaire, is born(d.1919)  
           1911 -- Frank Snowden, foremost scholar on African-  
                       American in ancient history, is born in York County, VA  
           1959 -- Billie Holiday(lady Day), one of the all time greatest   
                       blues singers, dies in New York.  
          1967 -- John Coltrane, innovative Jazz saxaphonist great,   
                       dies.  
 
18th   1899 -- L.C. Bailey is issued a patent for the Folding Bed.  
          1918 -- Nelson Mandela, is born.   
          1941 -- Martha Reeves(Martha and The Vandellas), is born.  
          1968 -- Fannie Lou Hamer led the fight for voter registration   
                       in the state of Mississippi, which caused the   
                       Party's credentials committee to seat only the   
                       Freedom Democratic Party from Mississippi at the   
                       1968 National Convention, in Chicago, Illinois.  
 
19th   1919 -- District of Columbia Riots aka "The Red Summer".  
          1964 -- Violence erupts in the Harlem and Bedford Styvesant  
                       sections of New York City.  
          1979 -- In her second cabinet level appointment, Patricia  
                       Roberts-Harris, is named Secretary of Health and   
                       Human Services in the Carter administration.  
          1979 -- Nicaraguan Sandinistas win elections.  
 
20th   1942 -- African-American women allowed to join the Womens  
                       Army Corps(WACS)  
          1957 --  Althea Gibson wins Wimbleton  
          1967 -- First National Conference on Black Power opens in   
                       Newark, N.J.  
 
21st   1864 -- New Orleans Tribune, 1st daily African-American  
                       newspaper, publishes in English and French.  
          1896 -- Mary Church Terrell, Founded the National   
                       Association of Colored Women, in Washington, D.C.  
          1955 -- First African-American controlled and managed  
                       Wall Street investment Company opens.  
          1967 -- Chief Albert Luthuli, of South Africa, wins the Nobel  
                       Peace Prize.  
 
22nd  1861 -- President Lincoln reads 1st draft of Emancipation  
                       Proclamation to Congress.  
          1902 -- Asa P. Spaulding, President of the North Carolina  
                       Mutual Life Insurance Company, is born.  
          1939 -- Jane Brolin, is appointed to the Domestic Relations   
                       Court, becoming the 1st female African-American  
                       judge.  
          1967 -- The beginning of  the Detroit uprising.  
 
23rd   1924 -- Townsend"Sonny"Brewster, playwright and activist, 
                       is born.  
          1954 -- Charles Bush is appointed the 1st African-American  
                       Page in the United States Supreme Court.  
 
24th   1893 -- Charles S. Johnson, educator, is born.  
          1954 -- Dr. Mary Church Terrell, 1st African-American to   
                       serve on the Washington, D.C., Board of 
                       Education, dies in Washington, D. C.  
 
25th  1778 -- The 1st African-American Baptist Church in
                      America is organized by 8 slaves in Silver Bluff, 
                      S.C.   
         1943 -- The 1st Warship named for an African-American,   
                      The Leonard Roy Harmon, launched in Quincy, MA.  
         1970 --  Charles Gordone wins Pulitizer Prize for No Place
                      To Be Somebody.  
         1970 -- Johnny Hodges(of Cambridge, MA.), Duke Ellington  
                      1st chair Sax player, dies(b.1904).  
         1990 -- Earl Graves and Magic Johnson purchase the 
                      largest minority controlled Pepsi-Cola franchise, in   
                      Washington, D.C.  
 
26th  1847 -- Liberia gains its independence.  
         1865 -- Catholic priest Patrick Francis Healy becomes the   
                      1st African-American to earn a Ph.D. degree.  
         1956 -- Fidel Castro and forces attack Moncado Barracks  
         1963 -- Defense Department issues directive ordering   
                      military services to protect the civil rights of   
                      servicemen on and off the base.  
 
27th  1832 --  Boston Black women form African-American 
                       Female Intelligence Society.  
         1898 --  Civil rights Activist, Audley 'Queen Mother' Moore, 
                       is born in Los Angeles, California.  
          1919 -- The beginning of the Chicago Riots.  
          1962 -- The Reverand Dr. Martin Luther King, is jailed
                       again in Albany, Georgia, as demonstrations
                       continue.  
28th   1868 -- The 14th Amendment to the United States   
                       Constitution is ratified, giving African-Americans 
                       the right to vote.  
          1903 -- Maggie Lena Walker founds the Saint Luke Penny   
                       Savings Bank, becoming 1st female bank
                       president.  
          1915 -- The 1st United States Marines land in Haiti.  
 
29th   1802 -- Alexander Dumas(pere/the father), French novelist   
                       dramatist{The Three Musketeers,The Count of  
                       Monte Christo, is born.  
          1816 -- Fort Negro is destroyed in Appalachicola.  
          1866 -- Congress made African-American Regiments a 
                       part of the United States Army.  
          1895 -- The 1st National Convention of African-American  
                       Women is held in Boston, Massachusetts.  
          1909 -- Criminal novelist, Chester Himes, creator of the   
                       fictional Dectectives, 'Cotten Ed' and Gravedigger   
                       Jones, in such novels as, Cotten Comes to
                       Harlem, is born(d.1980).  
 
30th   1822 -- James Varrick becomes the 1st bishop of the
                       African Methodist Episcopal Church of Zion.  
          1936 -- Buddy Guy, blues guitarist and vocalist, is born.  
          1945 -- Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., is elected to Congress   
                       Harlem, New York.  
          1964 -- The Federal Court in Atlanta, upheld a key
                       section of the Civil Rights Act.  
 
31st   1874 -- Father Patrick Healy, The 1st African-American
                       to earn a P.hD, is appointed president of
                       Georgetown University, in Washington D.C.
          1921 -- Whitney Moore Young, Jr., Executive Director of 
                       the National Urban League from 1961 to his 
                       death in1971, is born. 
 

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